Peruvian Music History from the Baroque to the present
While the music in Peru and America appears from the existence of the first inhabitants of the region, this section is devoted to the music West of Peru, which began with the European invasion. If you want to know something of the music before the arrival of the Spaniards, it is Pre Music.
This brief history is divided into the following sections:
1. The arrival of the American continent to Western Music
2. American Baroque
3. Music of the Republic
4. Romanticism and indigenous
5. Modernism - First half of the twentieth century
7. Bibliography and resources
The arrival of the American continent to Western Music
Spaniards who arrived in a first andalusia Peru (early sixteenth century) were people of weapons. They came with the knowledge of their songs warriors and peasants monÃ³dicos. These, though forged since the Middle Ages and perhaps earlier, barbaric and Arabic influence, and were submerged in the waters of the revolution renaissance. Together with soldiers arrived religious music quines used as a weapon to catechesis. Thus, when the Indians to teach singing tone flat and Organum (or, the church called monophonic Gregorian chant and Renaissance polyphony) necen the first manifestations of musical miscegenation.
Early s. XVI appears in book form and Ritual Institution Cures Andahuaylillass a Franciscan priest Juan Perez de Bocanegra processional song written in a language Quechua Hanac entitled Pachap (Midi file, 1.4 Kb), which is the first example of Western music written survivor in Peru. Its authorship is questionable, since it belonged to an indigenous pordrÃa instructed as to a religious medium talent, attributed the letter the author of the book. What is clear is that this is a work of polyphonic Renaissance style, with sub cadences of music or music ficta intellect, and though many think otherwise, are hardly in their setbacks pentafÃ³nicos lines, but rather, flavors manners.
The major music centers were established, and throughout America, the religious centers. Thus, in Peru, were Cuzco, Lima and Trujillo the most important and Arequipa, Huanuco, Huamanga other smaller scale. However, in all the churches was music, whether of body or voice. Many foreign musicians who are calling for the land in these times, most peninsular: Belzayaga Cristobal, Pedro Jimenez, Jose de CampderrÃ³s, Gutierre Fernandez de Hidalgo, who also introduced American music of Palestrina, Cristobal de Morales, Francisco Arauxo belt, Cabanillas, Aguilera de Heredia, TomÃ¡s de Herrera, and so on.
Baroque music is based in Peru in the late s. XVII. The way music is used during this period the Spanish Baroque villancicos. This form can be monophonic or polyphonic. It consists of two sections: Chorus and ballads, which alternate. In general, if the carol is polyphonic, the chorus is in ternary rhythm and imitative counterpoint and ballads in binary rhythm and style homofÃ³nico, similar to coral German. They were accompanied by a continuo organ or harp and violin.
Christmas carols were written for all the offices of the church calendar. It was originally imported from Spain, but then with the coming of musicians from Europe, were written here by these religious and mestizo Peruvians initiated in the art of music. These include, among foreign musicians coming to Peru, Spanish and Thomas TorrejÃ³n Velasco, author of the existing first American opera, La Purpura de la Rosa, with text by Calderon de la Barca and premiered in Lima in 1701. Another Spanish is the era of Juan de Araujo (1646-1712), famous for its Christmas carols Flame of Love, The Star of CÃ³flades (black), and so on. Cusco is Ignacio Quispe, the author of A gentlemen of good taste.
Over the years, leaving aside the Spanish style, and introducing ways and means Italian, as in the metropolitan court, the charges taken in vogue in the peninsula: the monody (vocals and bass), the use of an instrumental ensemble of two violins and, without violating the cantatas for voice alone, and so on. In Peru, the introduction of the Italian taste was due to Virrey Manual Oms and Santa Pau, Marquis de Castell two Rius. Along with him came Roque Cerutti Italian musician (1688-1760), who introduced the violin, the secco recitative, the bass, the thought harmonic parts obligatio and da capo aria. He composed operas, like Best Coat of Perseus and the Triumph of Love and Power, Neapolitan style. A sainete also composed a carol singing (MP3, 4.92 MB temporarily unavailable). In Cusco flourishes Esteban Ponce de Leon, composer of the serenade Come, come Deydades.
Born around 1706 in the city of Huacho the greatest Baroque composer born in the region and OrejÃ³n Jose Aparicio. His works of Neapolitan influence, show a total domination of the compositional technique of the period. Cerutti was a direct influence, but soon overtook their model. Among his best known works are The Butterfly, the cantata Oh joy! The Passion According to St. John is known and he wrote music for organ (also given his status as master of chapel of the cathedral of Lima), but his instrumental is not known. He died in Lima in 1765.
By mid and late eighteenth century, became popular music scene, especially tonadillas stage. These pieces were seasoned with sainetes popular songs and rhythms. This time are known composers Bartolomeo Massa, Italian and Rafael Soria. They are also famous singers Ines de Mayorga and Micaela Villegas "The Perricholi" loving viceroy Amat.
The latter years of the eighteenth century and early nineteenth century marked the decline of the colonial baroque music. In Peru, there was the appearance of the classic musical style. While there was a simplification of the elements of the music of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this simplification does not become the onset of a new style, but followed the pattern marked by Spain and was an Italian style homofÃ³nico (such as in the peninsula under the influence of Scarlatti, Carlo Broschi "Farinelli" and Bocherini) In this period belong Toribio del Campo and Pando, famous for its Charter on music appeared in the "Mercurio Peruano", Juan Beltran, a teacher at Chapel Limas cathedral until 1807, Pedro Jimenez and Pedro Tirado of April, and the Genoese Andres Bolognesi, who introduced the opera Cimarosa, Paisiello and Rossini, and send transcribing music files from the cathedral to modern notation (anteriomente is mensural notation used) disposal which was very outdated and destroying the originals of these transcripts by unserviceable.
The last master of the chapel which was then the Cathedral of Lima was Llaque Boniface, author of religious music, who in 1839 had to resign to be deprived of salary like all musicians, giving an end to a period of flowering music, entering a large backlog of state of the art of sound
Daniel Silva is the owner of several musica websites in english and spanish.