Music and Musical Instruments
Since the beginning of civilization, primitive man began to use dance and religious ceremonies to pray to the gods to be successful hunting and crops. At the same time is developing the techniques of the sounds that accompany the rites began.
Every culture has different ideas and value appreciation of music. Some gave all human values, while others wanted to communicate with spirits.
In Greek civilization, at the time of the school Pythagoras, the music transforms into the science of sound, it is related to mathematics. It produces a cosmic design, relating both to the philosophy.
The music is melody, rhythm is, it is sound, but writing music with a real staff, was made by the Italian monk Guido dArezzo (990 - 1050), the Siglo X. The staff consisted of four lines, and colors used keys and gave him the names of musical notes: do - re - mi - fa-sol - the - whether from the first syllables of a Latin text.
In 1711 appears the pitch, invented by John Shore English lute.
The metronome, used to measure time, is believed to have been invented by a friend of Beethoven, German Johnn Maetzel (1772 - 1832) who patented in 1816. Beginning in 1988 are made of quartz metronomes greater accuracy.
The man begins to sing along with clapping and blows with their feet.
Already in the Upper Palaeolithic begin to invent the first percussion instruments, called idiÃ³fonos crash, which were used bamboo sticks that are struck against each other, sounding boards which was placed on a table swing hole. Moving towards idiÃ³fonos percussion as hollow logs, or bamboo canes or ahuecados. Hence derived timbales, the xylophone, gongs and tam-tam. Some were incorporated into symphonic music, because of their richness of sound. For example, the xylophone was built by Saint-SaÃ«ns in 1864 the orchestra in the interpretation of "The Dance Macabra"
MembranÃ³fonos instruments are the ancestors of the drum, and when to begin sounding boards are adding a membrane. And in turn, raises the cordÃ³fonos and aerophones.
Among the oldest instruments cordÃ³fonos appears zither (bamboo zither Madagascar, zither lattice of India) and the harp, which derives from the ancient musical bow, and was among the Sumerians and Egypt around 3000 before Christ. First it was the arc of land use in Africa, formed by a membrane with a mango and nailed a hole in the ground. The arc of cash, replaced the pit by a sounding board. And then the resulting classical harp. Been changed over time, until the completion of double movement of the harp, made by Frenchman Sebastian Ã‰rard in 1801.
In the sixteenth century clavicÃmbalo and appeared in the eighteenth century, the piano, whose predecessor is the Ã©chequier instrument strings beaten.
The Harpsichord, known by this name since 1631, had its origin in the monocordio Archimedes (278-212 BC).
1710 appears on the piano, piano forte "by Bartolomeo Cristofori, he had made a small clavichord hammers to 1698. There at the Metropolitan Museum in New York such a piano, in 1720.
Were refined over time. Silbermann improved hammers and J. A. Stein, in 1789 added the pedals. Frenchman Sebastian Ã‰rard in 1822 adds dual exhaust to allow the repetition of the note. That is why some people consider him the true inventor of this instrument.
The body has an ancient origin, to the third century before Christ, and the first armed themselves from a kind of pan flute fitted with air pumps that send to the tubes (it is called hydro). There are several theories about the filmmaker. One said it was the Greek CtÃ©sibios Alexandria, while another claims that was due to Archimedes in 220 BC.
In 1800 the body appears Barberi, used to accompany traveling musicians. Different was the "limonaire" invented in 1880 by brothers Limonaire.
The violin was born between the arch of the medieval instruments used in the Renaissance. The violin as appeared in France in the year 1529. In Italy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were built as a work of art, and appear as luthiers Amati, Stradivarius and (possibly 1644-1737). The latter built more than a thousand instruments. He also was the one who made the cello in 1683 that lasted until today.
Some 1000 years before Christ appears on an instrument called Syria kettarah but mast, but is supposed to be the antecedent of the guitar. The guitar was created by modern A. Torres Spanish lute. The electric guitar, and in the era of electric and electronic instruments, was born in 1935, invented by estadounidente Rickenbach, while in 1931 there is a Hawaiian guitar, the Frying Pan or skillet. In 1947, Paul Bigsby invented the "vibrato" and he built the first guitar of its kind to Merle Travis. In 1978, the Swedish manufacturer Hagstron and the U.S. the market Ampeg guitar synthesizer. In 1987, Frenchman Olivier Betticare patented micro interchangeably.
The flute has its origins in prehistory. In the middle is used especially flute and from the seventeenth century, the flute or traversera, popular at that time by the flutists Hottetere Paris. Perfected the flute, and metal is made by the German Theobald BÃ¶hm, in 1832, and flutist in the Royal Chapel of Munich. In 1984, Frenchman Jacques LefÃ¨vre invented and introduced in Japan octobasse flute recording two octaves.
The horn is also very old. Hunters and warriors used them, taking them out of animals, carved or decorated, used olifante horn or elephant. In the seventeenth century it took into account and to integrate the orchestra in 1815, German StÃ¶lzel conducted a horn chromatic keys, which lasts until today.
The Oboe was known in Egypt to 2000 BC. Aulos came from the double tongue invention attached to the Greek gods (Apollo and Minerva).
The oboe was developed at the present nineteenth century by Frederic TriÃ©bert. the trumpet was in its early line. A copy has been found dating from 2000 BC.
In the fifteenth century it was a form of S, but recently was upgraded in 1815, when the trumpet is made of keys, also believes that the German made StÃ¶lzel.
The clarinet is closer to present day. Although ancient instruments from ancient Egypt, the arghoul of aulos Greece and the caramillos of the seventeenth century. In Nuremberg, the German Jean-Christoph Denner, around 1700, invented it.
The harmonica was invented in 1821 by German Buschmann. The wanting to produce an instrument able to tune pianos. In 1857, a manufacturer of organs, Mathias Hohner, added to its manufacturing industry harmonics.
The accordion was invented by the current austrÃacoCuril DemiÃ¡n in 1829. His background is the Chinese sheng-invented, as have some texts about 3000 BC by Queen Nyu Wu.
The bandoneon, but similar to a hexagonal accordion, was invented by the German Heinrich Band in 1850. It is used as the essence of the music of tango, which arrived in Argentina in 1870 and became synonymous with urban music and became a national instrument.
The saxophone was invented in 1846 by Belgian Adolphe Sax (1814 to 1894). We used in military bands and then in jazz.
The battery is attached to someone in New Orleans that invented to 1910, but only in 1950 making the current characteristics.
The first music box is believed to have been carried out by the Geneva watchmaker Fabre in 1796, with a cylinder pin. Its predecessor is the mechanical carrillÃ³n fourteenth century.
While mentioning here are some musical instruments, is the endless list of them, because man has created according to their interests and needs elements that served as accompaniment to folk music and aboriginal peoples, each civilization, each region has its own creations in musical instruments, consistent with native rhythms.
Daniel Silva is the owner of several musica websites in english and spanish.